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An Objective Set of Guidelines for Pushing and Pulling

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This document describes the development of a new set of objective guidelines for pushing and pulling tasks that help to reduce the risk of workplace injury to the low back and shoulders.

These were developed from a partnership between The Ohio State University and the Ohio Bureau of Workers' Compensation.

A free tool to evaluate and design safe pushing and pulling is available online.

How to Develop and Manage an Ergonomics Process

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An ergonomics process is a plan in which a facility gathers all relevant information on work organization, employee capabilities and limitations, and work-related MSDs, to develop solutions to better accommodate these employees and reduce MSD rates and their associated costs. 

This approach, as detailed in this document, has been successfully applied in many industrial environments and has been shown to reduce workers' compensations costs from 36% to 91%.

A Best Practices Guide for the Reduction of Musculoskeletal Disorders in Food Distribution Centers

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The occurrence of occupational injuries and illnesses in the grocery warehouse industry has a direct effect on the productivity of its employees, as well increases in costs due to lost productivity and medically related issues. Since a majority of these losses can be traced to the activities associated with moving the product through the facility, efforts to reduce the incidence and severity of the injuries resulting from this activity can have a positive impact on production as well as costs. This book, titled, A Best Practices Guide for the Reduction of Musculoskeletal Disorders in Food Distribution Centers, provides guidance to distribution centers (DCs) for the development of a process to address the hazards associated with the food distribution process, as well as the identification of both engineering and administrative controls that have been observed in many DCs across the country.
Because DCs use different systems for moving product through the facility (e.g., traditional order pick, belt-pick), Chapter III identifies factors that increase the risk of musculoskeletal disorders within each system observed. These factors consist primarily, among others, of bending and twisting of the back when selecting an order, repetitive lifting in awkward postures, and extended reaches.

For each type of distribution system, control strategies are identified and discussed. Chapter IV identifies engineering controls, and Chapter V addresses administrative controls. These control strategies were identified through observation at various DCs, as well as being based on ergonomics principles. 

Engineering controls are the preferred control strategy, as these controls can permanently reduce or eliminate the hazards associated MSDs. Engineering controls discussed include, among others, changes to the product (e.g., work with suppliers to decrease the weight of the heaviest products, adding handles to the cases), and strategies for changes in slotting (e.g., converting to more full slots, especially for heavier product and faster moving product, using risers or other methods to raise the pallets off the floor to reduce bending when selecting an order).

Administrative controls are secondary in preference, as they typically do not completely eliminate the hazards. Administrative controls identified, among others, include the use of job rotation to allow more varied activities, reducing overtime on regular work days, and providing training to employees on safe work practices. Finally, issues regarding medical management are discussed, with strategies aimed at adequate and prompt medical attention and return-to-work strategies.

Many DCs have safety and health programs in place, and several of these may address components of the ergonomics process identified in this document.  Therefore, it is not the intent of this Guide to completely revamp existing programs, but to instead enhance the safety and health of the food distribution industry through the application of observed best practices and application of ergonomics principles.